Candida albicans are saprophytic diploid fungus commonly found in the microflora of body cavities. They develop as both yeast and filamentous cells and can result in genital and oral infections particularly in compromised immune systems (immunocompromised). As a result of their capacity to rapidly proliferate, the fungus has grown into one of the significant causes of hospital-acquired infections (HAI).
It is commonly found in the human intestine in smallish numbers. The normal format of presence is in the shape of one ovoid yeast cell. The fungus grows in precisely the identical type when cultured in a laboratory medium. In the normal condition, it doesn’t cause any problem since the helpful bacteria in the gut can easily control the parasites. In this condition it’s not able to penetrate the linings in the digestive tract and no antibodies are created by the body to curb the dormant population.
However, Candida albicans can clot in certain instances leading to the prototypic opportunistic disease, Candidiasis. The causes are usually nonimmunogenic such as antibiotics, pregnancy and diabetes, among others or immunologic under which the immune system is not able to stop the proliferation. During this period, the yeast may affect a variety of organs in the body and cause a variety of health problems.
One of the chief causes of these infections is the use of antibiotics which harm the physiological and mucosal flora killing both harmful and useful bacteria, and impair the walls of the digestive tract. Steroids and birth control pills are also responsible for catalysing this expansion. The body’s humoral response to the overgrowth is an immune response triggered by the macromolecules present in extracellular fluids.
The glycoprotein immunoglobulin comprises of five groups, IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM which act as effector molecules in the humoral response to yeast infections. IgG constitutes approximately 75 percent of the total immunoglobulins from the plasma of normal healthy individuals while the remainder comprise the remaining 25%. The IgA antibody is found in both serum and secretory (sIgA) forms.
The IgG antibodies are generated by the plasma membranes following isotype switching and look during the maturity of the antibody reaction after repeated contact with antigens. IgG mostly plays a role in secondary immune response because of its delayed appearance and is characterised by relatively higher affinity and capacity to exist for a longer time. The antibodies bind and coat the pathogens leading to their immobilisation and takeover by phagocytic immune cells. They also activate the immune protein production in the match system which can help remove the pathogens.
The humoral response to Candida albicans could be analyzed by enzyme immunoassays. IgA, IgG and IgM assays help detect antibodies against the uterus in human serum. In healthy human beings, the antibodies are usually able to protect against the yeast infections from affecting other body organs. However, in immunocompromised patients, the uterus can reach the blood and cause Candidaemia. Inadequate and delayed treatment of this disease was identified as one of the significant causes of increased mortality in hospitalised patients. It’s thus extremely important that appropriate tests are conducted at the earliest and effective treatment initiated under specialist guidance of specialist doctors with no delay.